In the ensuing decade, the genomes of numerous plant viruses were determined and a race. Celltocell and longdistance transport of viruses in. First, the virus in the form of virions or nucleic acid protein. However, their functional relevance for plants is still unclear. Further experiments showed that rem binds directly to the virus movement protein tgbp1 from pvx and that it impairs celltocell movement of the virus rather than viral replication inside cells. Flock house virus fhv, a singlestranded rna insect virus, has previously been reported to cross the kingdom barrier and replicate in barley protoplasts and in inoculated leaves of several plant species selling, b. Plant virus movement is a prime target for development of new crop protection strategies because the number of transported viral genomes is extremely small, in the order of units gutierrez et al. Mutant movement proteins expressed in transgenic plants may be capable of blocking the function of the wildtype movement protein produced during virus infection.
Oct 30, 2015 in plants, the importexport control of actin and actin binding proteins into and out of the nucleus is unclear. Celltocell movement is a crucial step in plant virus infection. Through their life cycle, from virus accumulation to intracellular, local, and systemic movement, viruses utilize plant proteins, normally. Genetic analysis of a piezolike protein suppressing systemic movement of plant viruses in arabidopsis thaliana. Celltocell movement of plant viruses through plasmodesmata involves specific viral factors movement proteins, mp and is inevitably assisted by cellular mechanisms in mp targeting, plasma membrane pm anchoring and transport of the mp through the plasmodesmal pore. Schematic of actin remodeling in the plant cell an illustration of the basic actin remodeling process, including the association and function of key actin binding proteins. The role of specific viral proteins in establishing the vrc, and the ways in which these interact with host organelles, was investigated. A better understanding of plant virus movement proteins and the mechanisms by which they function may eventually lead to the development of virusresistant plants. First, the virus in the form of virions or nucleic acid protein complexes moves intracellularly from the sites of replication to plasmodesmata pd, plantspecific intercellular membranous channels. Mp30 is thought to bind to the viruss own genome and shuttle it from infected cells to uninfected cells through plasmodesmata. Atpiezo plays a role in restriction of systemic spread of a.
Parsimony analysis grouped tubuleforming movement proteins separate from others. First, the virus in the form of virions or nucleic acid protein complexes moves intracellularly from the sites of replication to plasmodesmata pd, plantspecific intercellular membranous channels, the virus then transverses the pd to spread intercellularly celltocell movement. Plant viruses spread throughout their hosts using a number of pathways, the. When viruses are transmitted by seeds, the seed is infected in the generative cells and the virus is maintained in the germ. Harnessing host rosgenerating machinery for the robust.
Plant viruses can also be transported over longer distances through the host plant in the vascular system via the phloem. Frontiers viral and cellular factors involved in phloem. Some extracellular pr4 proteins possess ribonuclease activity and may directly inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi. Chapter 21 probing interactions between plant virus movement. Seed and pollen borne viruses plant virus transmission from generation to generation occurs in about 20% of plant viruses. Many, if not all, plant viruses encode a movement protein, and some express more than one. The genomes of most plant viruses contain genes that encode movement proteins mp, which facilitate the movement of virus particles between cells via the plasmodesmata pd, but also systemically. Tobacco mosaic virus and potexviruses are the most extensively studied viruses. The role of the cytoskeleton in the plasmodesmatamediated transport has been well documented for virus movement. We compared the growth of fhv in leaves of nontransgenic and transgenic plants expressing the mp of tobacco mosaic virus or red clover necrotic mosaic virus rcnmv. Unlike animal cells, plant cells have robust cell walls, which viruses cannot easily penetrate.
Indeed, many studies of the replication proteins of rnacontaining plant as well as animal viruses have revealed an integral association of virus replication with cell membranes richards and ehrenfeld, 1990. Plant celltocell communication is achieved by membranous conduits called plasmodesmata, which bridge the cytoplasm of neighboring cells. A rhabdoviral and a tenuiviral protein were identified as 30k superfamily members, as were plant encoded phloem proteins. Learn more about the structure and classification of proteins. Plant virus movement protein dynamics probed with a gfp. Plant infecting viruses utilize various strategies involving multiple viral and host factors to achieve successful systemic infections of their compatible hosts. The first complete plant virus genome sequence appeared in 1980 franck et al. We tested the ability of movement proteins mps of plant viruses to provide movement functions and cause systemic spread of fhv in plants. Mpb2c, a microtubuleassociated plant factor, is required for. Lettuce infectious yellows virus liyv, genus crinivirus, family closteroviridae, has long, filamentous flexuous virions and causes phloemlimited infections in its plant hosts. Besides mp, many viruses encode structural proteins or genome replication proteins with addi tional functions in celltocell and. Introduction celltocell transport of plant viruses occurs through plasmodesmata, the channels interconnecting neighboring cells in plant tissues, and requires dedicated virusencoded movement proteins mps 15. The tgbbased transport system exploits the coordinated action of three polypeptides to deliver viral genomes to plasmodesmata and to accomplish virus entry into neighbouring cells.
Viruses reveal different local transport strategies, but all of them are the results of virus factorshost components interactions. Introduction celltocell transport of plant viruses occurs through plasmodesmata, the channels interconnecting neighboring cells in plant tissues, and requires dedicated virus encoded movement proteins mps 15. Exploring the role of cellular homologous of the 30k. Plant virology protocols from viral sequence to protein. Flowering locus t protein moves from leaves to the shoot apical meristem through plasmodesmata to initiate flowering. Morozovrna helicase activity of the plant virus movement proteins encoded by the first gene of the triple gene block. Agents for celltocell trafficking of viral genomes. In the present discussion, emphasis will be placed on the movement proteins tobacco mosaic virus tmv, the most thoroughly studied viralencoded movement protein. Replication and trafficking of a plant virus are coupled at. Perspectives on intracellular perception of plant viruses. Some snake venom, bacterial toxins and toxic plant proteins, such as ricin, also appear to have defensive functions.
After an initial replication step in the first cells, viruses spread from celltocell through mesophyll cells, until they reach the vasculature where they rapidly move to distant sites in order to establish the infection of the whole plant. Plant viruses encode movement proteins that allow them to move celltocell without going through an extracellular phase lazarowitz and beachy 1999. Their importance was recognized in the early 19th century. Further, our attention will be focused on the cell biology of viral movement proteins in vrnp complex trafficking. Pl pa 601 plant defenses and viral counterstrategies spring 2004 4. One example of a viral movement proteins is the tobacco mosaic virus mp30. Other proteins there are numerous other proteins whose functions are exotic in nature and therefore, are not easily classified. Functional analysis of a plant virus replication factory. Replication and trafficking of a plant virus are coupled. In this work, the role of mpb2c in celltocell transport of tmvmp, viral spread of tmv, and subcellular localization of tmvmp was examined.
Probing interactions between plant virus movement proteins and nucleic acids tzvi tzfira and vitaly citovsky abstract most plant viruses move between plant cells with the help of their movement proteins mps. Chikara masuta, hokkaido university, japan deputy section editor. Table 1 summary of evidence for viralcoded celltocell movement proteins. Recent studies indicate a role of virusderived sirnas in manipulating the expression of specific host genes and that certain plant viral movement proteins mps can act as viral enhancers of rna silencing vers by stimulating the spread of silencing between cells. The tobacco mosaic virus movement protein associates with but. However, despite intense research efforts, the key steps in virus movement remain elusive at the molecular level. Mpb2c, a microtubuleassociated plant factor, is required. Plant nlrs recognize viruses through direct or indirect association of viral proteins, triggering a downstream defence response to prevent viral proliferation and movement within the plant. Nlr class of immune receptors plays an important role in plant viral defence. The amino acid sequence identities of proteins encoded by the. Plantinfecting viruses utilize various strategies involving multiple viral and host factors to achieve successful systemic infections of their compatible hosts.
Plant viruses encode one or more movement proteins mps that enable viral propagation from the. It is likely that extracellular rnases can also protect plants against some viruses with rna genomes. A distinct, nonvirion plant virus movement protein. Mps are multifunctional proteins, and one of their functions is almost invariably binding to nucleic acids. In addition, as our knowledge of the plant virus interactome increases, it may ultimately lead to a reevaluation of the known functions of some plant virus proteins. A rhabdoviral and a tenuiviral protein were identified as 30k superfamily members, as were plantencoded phloem proteins. Successful infection of a plant by a plant virus depends on its ability to move from the cell initially infected to neighbouring cells in order to spread infection.
The liyvencoded p26 is a distinct nonvirion protein. Also this section publishes studies involving useful methodological application such as diagnostic. Membrane rafts and virus movement in plant cells plant cell. Brassica yellows virus movement protein upregulates.
The analysis led to criteria that were used to evaluate other virusencoded proteins for possible membership of the 30k superfamily. Alanine scanning mutagenesis was performed on the red clover necrotic mosaic virus rcnmv movement protein mp, and 12 mutants were assayed in vitro for rna binding characteristics and in vivo for their ability to potentiate rcnmv celltocell movement. Plant virusencoded proteins described as localized in the cajal body andor interacting with cajal body components. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of a plant virus movement. Tmv mp occurred during movement via pd plays a role. Pdf molecular aspects of plant viruses movement through plants. When viruses are transmitted by seeds, the seed is infected in the. The analysis led to criteria that were used to evaluate other virus encoded proteins for possible membership of the 30k superfamily. Each section of plant virology protocols, second edition presents the most novel. In many viruses, the movement function is secured by specific virus encoded proteins. Despite the current level of understanding of virus movement, there are still many unknown and. Homologydependent gene silencing now known as rnai appears to be an innate defense response to virus infection in plants baulcombe and macfarlane, 1999. Role of plasmodesmata and virus movement proteins in spread of. The apoplast plays an important role in plant defense against pathogens.
A growing body of immunolocalization data shows an association of the cytoskeleton machinery with plasmodesmata. To infect plants systemically, viruses encode specialized movement proteins mps that allow their movement from cell to cell through. Many plant virus genera encode a triple gene block tgb, a specialized evolutionarily conserved gene module involved in the celltocell and longdistance movement of viruses. It has long been appreciated that endomembranes, including the er, play an important role in rna virus replication. Pl pa 601 plant defenses and viral counterstrategies. The role of the cytoskeleton in the plasmodesmatamediated transport has. Given the mode of virus delivery into plant cells and the obligatory conservative nature of pamps, which is not a property of rapidly evolving plant virus proteins, the molecular nature of the virus signatures recognized by plant pti is very probably similar to those presented by mammalian viruses during infection. Mp30 is thought to bind to the virus s own genome and shuttle it from infected cells to uninfected cells through plasmodesmata.
The processes of plant virus movement are controlled by specific viral movement proteins mps. Virus movement proteins and other molecular probes of. Movement protein, virus movement, plasmodesmata, microtubules, subcellular localization. In viruses, the movement protein mp is responsible for the pd gating that allows the. Pdf the plant cellular systems for plant virus movement. Plant viruses encode for movement proteins mps that are essential for cell. In this work, the role of mpb2c in celltocell transport of tmvmp, viral spread of tmv, and subcellular localization of tmvmp. Open access the role of microtubule association in. The tgbbased transport system exploits the coordinated action of three polypeptides to deliver viral genomes to plasmodesmata and to accomplish virus entry into. The plant viruses section of virology journal covers studies on all aspects of plant viruses including viral structure, gene function, genetics, virus host interactions, viral pathogenesis, epidemiology, host resistance, rna silencing and so on. Some of these, including fibrinogen, thrombin and some types of venom, are also enzymes. Agents for celltocell trafficking of viral genomes william j. A particular focus of this project is exploration of the structural and functional significance of the pvx vrc and how the virus recruits cell host components for its replication and movement between cells. Following the considerable success of the first edition of plant virology protocols, this exciting new edition covers the many new techniques that are now applied to the examination and understanding of plant viruses.
Phloem transport of plant viruses is an essential step in the settingup of a complete infection of a host plant. Genetic analysis of a piezolike protein suppressing. Pioneering studies on plant viruses revealed that pd allow the celltocell trafficking of virally encoded proteins, termed the movement proteins mps. Plant viruses spread throughout their hosts using a number of pathways, the most common being movement cell to cell through plasmodesmata, unique intercellular organelles of the plant kingdom ding, 1998, lucas, 1995, oparka, 2004, and between organs i. A distinct, nonvirion plant virus movement protein encoded. Bipartite geminiviruses such as squash leaf curl virus sqlcv encode two movement proteins mps essential for systemic infection of host plants. However, many plant rnases are multifunctional and the direct link. Movement protein binding 2c mpb2c is a plant endogenous microtubuleassociated protein previously identified as an interaction partner of tobacco nicotiana tabacum mosaic virus movement protein tmvmp. Jun 12, 2010 the current investigations of three genera plant virus celltocell movement were presented.
No extensive sequence similarity has been found in mps belonging to different plant virus taxonomic groups. This superfamily combines proteins of viruses belonging to all principal. The movement protein of tobacco mosaic virus tmv has been most extensively studied. Here, we undertake some preliminary steps into the functional characterization of one of these putative mp genes found in. Protein, highly complex substance that is present in all living organisms. Recent studies suggest a role in defense against animal virus.
The emerging role of the cajal body in plantvirus interactions. Recent studies indicate a role of virusderived sirnas in manipulating the expression of speci. Proteins are of great nutritional value and are directly involved in the chemical processes essential for life. Atpiezo plays a role in restriction of systemic spread of a couple of. In many viruses, the movement function is secured by specific virusencoded proteins. Transgenic virusresistant plants and new plant viruses. Supriya chakraborty, jawaharlal nehru university, india the plant viruses section of virology journal covers studies on all aspects of plant viruses including viral structure, gene function, genetics, virushost interactions, viral pathogenesis, epidemiology, host resistance, rna silencing and so. Read plant virus movement protein dynamics probed with a gfpprotein fusion, gene on deepdyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. Genetic analysis of a piezolike protein suppressing systemic.
The emerging role of the cajal body in plant virus interactions. Genes orthologous to the 30ksuperfamily of movement proteins mp from plant viruses have been recently discovered by bioinformatics analyses as integrated elements in the genome of most vascular plants. This noncellautonomous protein ncap pathway is similarly employed by the host to traffic macromolecules. Longdistance movement of virus occurs through phloem sieve tubes.
Interactions between different movement proteins in transgenic plants. Chapter 21 probing interactions between plant virus. May 24, 20 phloem transport of plant viruses is an essential step in the settingup of a complete infection of a host plant. Role of plant virus movement proteins springerlink. Amino acid sequence comparisons of these proteins revealed a vast superfamily containing a conserved sequence motif that may comprise a hydrophobic interaction domain. The br1 mp is the focus of the work presented here. Here, we undertake some preliminary steps into the functional characterization of one of these. Jan 30, 2012 recent studies indicate a role of virus derived sirnas in manipulating the expression of specific host genes and that certain plant viral movement proteins mps can act as viral enhancers of rna silencing vers by stimulating the spread of silencing between cells. Lucas section of plant biology, college of biological sciences, university of california, one shields ave. In such cases, the cp serves some form of ancillary role to the mp table 1, group 2. This new function was elucidated by studies on virus. Plant virus replication and movement sciencedirect. Plant viruses spread from the initially infected cells to the rest of the plant in several distinct stages.584 1356 893 1418 878 1229 510 1195 544 65 778 453 628 1372 1147 1367 928 647 427 1147 294 808 1046 100 918 777 385 1445 828 667 221 604 346 554 186 217 795 556 1266 410 1405 1433 654